Archive | April, 2012

A Prescription for Changing Your Corporate Culture

30 Apr

Brandon Smith - The Workplace TherapistToday’s guest post comes to us from Brandon Smith. Therapist, professor, consultant and radio host, Brandon brings an upbeat, witty approach to the challenges of workplace health and dysfunction. Brandon is the founder of – a resource dedicated to eliminating dysfunction at work, improving workplace health and restoring optimism and focus in the workplace. Brandon also currently serves as faculty at Emory University’s Goizueta Business School where he teaches and researches on topics related to leadership, communication and healthy workplace dynamics.

Whether you are the manager of a department or sit atop an organization, you have the power to change a culture by your words and actions. What’s frightening is that you’ve already been doing that – whether you realized it or not. So, how can you more intentionally shape the culture the way you want to? Here’s a prescription for you. Take these doses in order and then repeat:

1. What do you preach? Write it down. I can guarantee that there are words, phrases and conversations you are using in your everyday interactions more than others. What you choose to talk about influences your culture. So, write it down. By writing it down you can be more intentional about what you are saying and why. Here are some good ways to determine what it is that you are actually emphasizing through your words and actions:

• When you talk to your team members, how do you start the conversation? Do you talk about family first, results first, check-in on how they are doing, etc…

• What do you insist on talking about at every meeting? Is there any common topic you bring up or agenda you use?

• What is the one thing that you think needs to change “around here?” What gets you frustrated in your group and organization that you routinely share with others?

2. What are the “real” messages you are sending to your employees? Make sure you are consistent. Are you operating in a way that is different… or worse, counter to the values you espouse? This could be utterly catastrophic. If your employees see you as a hypocrite, they will write you off and take everything you say with a grain of salt. Consider this story from Ben, a consultant with a firm that espouses the importance of work/life balance and family to its employees:

This past December, our firm went after a high-profile project that our primary competitor had virtually locked up. The client eventually put it out for bid the day before Christmas Eve. Because this was a project that would be fantastic for our firm and directly align with our strategy, we pursued it full on, committing a team of people to work 72 hours straight over the Christmas holiday. In the end, we won the work above many of the most well known names in our industry and our key competitor is now a sub-contractor to us.

While this is a great story for our firm, all I heard was that multiple people sacrificed their entire Christmas holiday, setting aside their loved ones for work. This really made me wonder if my values were truly aligned with my employer’s and what my future at the company could be.

Your actions speak louder than words. What are you “really” saying? Here are ways to find out:

• What values do you do look for when you hire people?

• What do you fire people for? Is that aligned with what you espouse? Note: If you’ve never fired anyone, look closely. If you had been congruent with your values, would you have made tougher decisions by now?

• What do you reward people for?

3. What do your customers want to talk about? What’s important to them? Align your culture with their values. What do your customers value? This is a critical and massively overlooked category when leaders think about culture. Your cultural values should be aligned with those of your customers if you want your culture to help you, rather than hurt you. Consider Bob Nardelli at The Home Depot. When Bob left GE to join The Home Depot, he brought his values with him. Bob valued efficiency and low cost above everything else. To that end, Bob got rid of many of the most seasoned store employees that delivered some of the best service in the industry, opting to staff the stores with inexperienced, low cost employees. Unfortunately, Bob’s customers did not share the same set of values, traditionally valuing service and convenience over everything else. The result: The Home Depot lost market share to Lowe’s as customers were turned off by Bob and his culture. Frank Blake, Bob’s successor has been working diligently to repair the damage, but once customers leave, it is a long haul to bring them back. Align your culture with your customers for success.

4. Practice the “No Jerk” Rule. Bob Sutton, Faculty at Stanford impresses the importance of eliminating those individuals in the organization that are caustic, abusive and cause trouble. Trust me, left unchecked “assholes” will ruin all of your plans. Bob notes that research indicates that one caustic / negative interaction delivers “5 times the punch” of a positive interaction. If you have those kinds of individuals in your organization, despite your best efforts, you run the risk of your culture defaulting to cut-throat behaviors, heavy politics, abuse, unethical behaviors, fear and lowered commitment. But watch out. Bob also notes that jerks “will breed like rabbits.” Make sure you aren’t putting the wrong person in charge of hiring. And make sure you personally don’t qualify.

Follow these steps and you’ll be on the way to developing the “right” culture. And whether you are a manager or a CEO, these steps can all be put in place today. One word of caution, if you are a manager inside a larger organization, the task of changing culture is a bit trickier because you have several “customers” – your external customers and your internal customers. It can be a challenge to create a healthy “subculture” if you find yourself stuck in an unhealthy one. That being said, life’s too short. Create the culture you’ve always wanted, and who knows, you might be surprised at how many people decide to join you.


Trend Analysis – Not Just For Sales Anymore

27 Apr

HR Trend AnalysisLet’s face it – HR is different. 

Our “stock” is people; our “transactions” don’t require shipping; and our analyses rarely get mentioned  when someone starts talking about “business intelligence”.

And it’s the third of these that we should take issue with. Business intelligence is just as important in HR as it is in the rest of an organization. Employees – like stock – have value; they represent an investment which should be monitored and evaluated. But unlike stock that sits on a shelf, an employee’s value changes; it changes as employees move up within your organization, and it changes based on such simple things as staff attendance, certification, and salary.

Which brings us to the subject of “trend analysis”.

Trend analysis has typically been reserved for use by an organization’s sales department. A sales manager needs trend analysis in order to identify which items, customers, salesreps, et cetera are seeing an increase or decrease in volume. “And . . . “ (so the reasoning goes) “ . . . since an HR department doesn’t deal with this kind of volume, they have no need of a trend analysis solution.”

That’s where the trend analysis folks are just plain wrong.

HR needs to identify trends; just different kinds of trends that most people think of. Whereas a sales department is concerned about sales figures going up or down, an HR department is concerned with employee productivity and employee cost per hire going up or down. An employee who is suddenly (or even gradually) recording more and more sick time over the last few months is a concern. A departmental manager whose expenses for the last month are exponentially higher than their average month is cause for alarm. And a quarter in which your employees have to renew over half of their certifications is unquestionably something that has to be planned for.

So a pretty darn good case can be made on behalf of the need for trend analysis within HR; but now comes perhaps the more challenging two related questions:

  • Can HR afford the price of an “analytics application” to perform trend analysis?
  • Does HR have the staff time required to use such an analytics tool?

Typically the answers to these two questions are “I sincerely doubt it” and “No way . . . “

And although these answers might make it seem that an HR trend analysis product is just another of those “nice-to-have if-we-could” solutions, these answers do, in fact, point us towards a very specific type of HR analytics solution. A solution that costs little (less than $2,000) and makes no demands upon an HR staffer’s everyday workload.

Such trend analysis solutions do exist; but you may not find them where you expect. Instead of looking under “Business Intelligence”, “Analytics”, or even “Trend Analysis”, this relatively new breed of software is most typically found under headings such as “Alerts” or “Business Activity Monitoring”. After all – isn’t the process of monitoring your HRMS system for trends, and then communicating those trends to the appropriate people – really nothing more than a rather sophisticated alert?

(Or, to use a sports analogy, an “alert on steroids”?)

Alerting systems have grown up; no longer are they limited to the role of “alarm clock” for your HR data, doing nothing more than alerting you to new hires, changes in benefits, and certifications about to expire. (Not that there’s anything wrong with those uses; it’s just wrong to assume that those basic uses of an alerts system are all it has to offer you.)

The new generation of alerts technologies for HR include the ability to perform trend analysis. Just as importantly, these new technologies provide this ability at a reasonable cost, and they operate automatically – meaning that they discover and deliver trend information without making any demands on an HR staffer’s available time.

So don’t let those folks in sales tell you that there’s no need for trend analysis in HR. Your employees are your organization’s single-most important commodity; trend analysis can help you get receive a higher return on that employee  investment.


Four Keys To Success For Finding the Right Talent

25 Apr

Find The Right TalentIn this second installment of a five part series, Mollie Lombardi, a research director for Aberdeen Group’s human capital management practice shares her views on finding the right talent. Mollie has surveyed and interviewed thousands of end-users to gain a better grasp of the key challenges facing human resources and talent management leaders. Mollie has an extensive background in writing and speaking about topics such as strategic talent management and employee engagement. If you’d like to learn more about Mollie you may read our first installment, Meet Mollie Lombardi.

A company’s ability to achieve its goals is heavily affected by its people—so sourcing, selecting, and onboarding quality employees is crucial.

Unfortunately, recruiting pressures are a struggle for many organizations. According to an Aberdeen Group report on talent acquisition, the most important recruiting pressures organizations are facing are the competition for top talent, shortages of key skills, and the growing realization that talent is what will drive growth.

So what can your organization do to improve hiring in this competitive market? Here are four strategies that will help boost your chances of finding, hiring, and retaining the talent that best fits your organization.

Map the needs

It’s important to understand the needs of your business. If you don’t know the skills, capabilities, knowledge, and characteristics your business requires, your talent acquisition efforts are doomed to fail. The Aberdeen Group report identified the most common strategy among Best-in-Class organizations: They improve their ability to identify talent most likely to succeed by defining core organizational competencies.

Empower the organization

Best-in-Class organizations are 72 percent more likely to say they have a culture in which everyone takes part in talent acquisition. Recruiters don’t just collaborate with hiring managers—every employee is deputized as an “employment brand ambassador” and is encouraged to send referrals, network, and recruit.

Manage risk by building talent pools

Critical roles within an organization are those that drive customer experience and revenue, and they require differentiated approaches for recruiting. Recruiters who build relationships with a strong pool of potential candidates long before job requisitions hit their desks are proactively managing risk for their business.

Integrate data to fine-tune the hiring engine

A top-performing talent acquisition strategy is not something that can be created once and then forgotten. Organizations must keep integrating performance data with sources of hiring and prehiring assessment data to help them fine-tune their hiring engine. Changes occur within a company, potential employees, and sourcing and recruiting technology, so there must be change in recruiting strategies.

Finding the right talent is hard work, but the payoff can be enormous. I often say that getting talent right is getting business right—and recruiting is the place to start when it comes to getting talent right.


Two Heads May Not Be Better Than One

20 Apr

Collaboration Can Be A Double-Edged SwordProfessional collaboration – whether in a joint venture, a team project or a business partnership – is something of a double-edged sword. On the one hand, the devotion of several different minds to one project can result in unforeseen levels of energy, creativity and productivity. But, like anything else in the business world, there are drawbacks.

As members of a collaborative are likely to spend a considerable amount of time together, it’s natural for differences of opinion and alternative work habits to result. Conflict is unpleasant, but it shouldn’t be avoided. If nobody addresses their concerns then nothing will be accomplished. Knowing how to weigh trade-offs between options means knowing how to argue productively, says the Harvard Business Review.

It’s also important to realize that, especially at the startup stage, roles are going to be unclear. But this doesn’t have to be a bad thing, as it alludes to the fluidity of responsibility. Members should be prepared for their role to change with each phase of work.

Finally, members of a team should be ready to accept ambiguity. HBR points out that there is no point to collaborating on a challenge if you already know how to solve it.

How do work collaboratively and remain productive?

Meet Mollie Lombardi, Research Director With Aberdeen

18 Apr

In this first installment of a five part series, we interview Mollie Lombardi, a research director for Aberdeen Group’s human capital management practice. She has surveyed and interviewed thousands of end-users to gain a better grasp of the key challenges facing human resources and talent management leaders. Mollie has an extensive background in writing and speaking about topics such as strategic talent management and employee engagement. 

Joey Baird: You have a very impressive background in HR. What notable changes have you seen in the industry throughout the years?

Mollie Lombardi: It’s been interesting. Even in just the past 10 or 15 years, we’ve seen periods of extreme growth followed by severe economic downturn. And in the midst of that turmoil, organizations always have struggled with the same key questions:

  • Where do I find talent?
  • How do I grow talent?
  • How do I hang on to my best people?

But I would say that the way we answer those questions has changed. Technology has caught up with our desire to have greater transparency, and it has allowed us to reach employees wherever they are through mobile and social tools. The questions remain, but our arsenal to go after them continues to evolve.

How do you see social media playing a factor in the HR industry? Do you think the importance of social media is positive or negative?

I think that in the end, it is a positive. But a lot of organizations still struggle to “control” social media. They’re missing the point. You can’t control social media, so you simply have to live the way you want to be perceived. Social media can be an amazing window into your organization’s culture, your brand, your mission, and your goals. It can be a powerful tool to help connect you to potential employees, as well as retain and engage your existing employees.

But you can’t fake it. If you want to be perceived as a great employer and corporate citizen, or a great consumer brand on social media, you have to be one. The level of transparency brought by social media leaves organizations with no place to hide—which will be the best thing for employees and employers.

Do you see social media alleviating or creating more problems in the workplace?

At first, social media might be seen to be causing more problems—but a lot of that is growing pains. It’s something new, and organizations have struggled to understand what it really means. But it’s not going to go away, and social media and whatever comes next will be a part of our lives. And at the end of the day, these tools are about communication. Open and honest communication within organizations will, in the end, alleviate more issues than it causes.

You’re a Boston University alumna with a degree in theater. What made you transition to the HR industry?

My job and field of study within theater was as a stage manager, and what a stage manager really does on a day-to-day basis is make sure everyone knows what they need to know, shows up where they are supposed to, and delivers for the audience. The stage manager also keeps extensive records for all the various stakeholders, such as producers, backers, and even the various unions that represent stagehands, actors, and musicians. So, in a lot of ways, it’s an excellent training ground for HR. And it was excellent training for the project-based nature of my consulting work.

I noticed you did some work with Harley-Davidson. How was that experience? Did Harley-Davidson set you up with a motorcycle—or at least a ride on one—in exchange for your services?

I’m afraid not. But I will say that touring its corporate headquarters and one of its factories is one of the more interesting client experiences I’ve had. It was pretty awesome to see the amazing collection of machines in the motorcycle section of the corporate headquarters parking lot on a sunny spring day.

What are some of your favorite Twitter accounts to follow? Do you have any bloggers you’d recommend to our readers?

I follow all the folks over at Fistful of Talent pretty closely: the FOT blog, the Twitter accounts of most of their contributors, and the personal blogs of folks such as Kris Dunn, Tim Sackett, Jessica Lee, and Andy Porter. I also closely follow Naomi Bloom for her insights on HR technology, and I like to keep up with Laurie Ruettimann for her irreverent commentary on topical issues and the latest updates on her cats.

What are the most important points organizations should understand when looking to recruit and retain talent?

I think the biggest one is to pay attention. If you’re trying to recruit people with certain skills or attributes, look at where the people you know have those skills and attributes spend their time outside work. Pay attention to how they interact, and model your hiring communications around things they already respond to. For retention, paying attention is even more important. A manager’s job should be to know what’s going on with the team. People convey their unhappiness long before they turn in their resignations. Getting tuned into the signals of disengagement is critical, both in terms of data, such as a drop-off in productivity or a slowing down in their contributions to internal and external social networking, as well as in terms of interpersonal cues.

The other important point is transparency. Whether someone works for you now or might work for you in the future, painting a clear picture of what it means to work with your organization and what the opportunities are for them as individuals is key to the decision to join or stay with the company.

Do you see a difference in what members of Generation X and Generation Y seek in job fulfillment compared with what those in previous generations consider to be important?

One of the biggest things I’m seeing about Gen Y is the need for advancement. I think to keep these employees happy, organizations are going to have to find ways to offer them mobility and new challenges. It’s not about everybody rocketing up the ladder to a vice presidency by the time they’re 28, but it is about helping younger employees see the types of career paths and opportunities they may have. I think we’re also going to see a more networked approach to work. People might come and go from jobs, but they will build relationships that cause them to continue to seek out work with certain groups of people or individuals. It is more of a loyalty to a team than to a particular corporate brand. People want work that interests them and to do it in an environment and with colleagues that they enjoy, and they are placing a premium on that versus a promise of a 30-year career with one employer.

We are also seeing that no matter the generation, there is a high demand for personalization. The continued consumerization of technology has made people come to expect on-demand access to all the information they need. If I can go to my bank’s website and see the entire history of my relationship with that bank, I want to be able to go to my HR system and see all my benefits transactions or schedule history. People have come to expect the ability to get the information they want, in the format they want, when and where they need it.

All of us at the Employer Solutions Blog thank Mollie for allowing us to interview her and we look forward to providing more thoughts from her next week!

In the meantime, you can follow Mollie on Twitter, @mollielombardi, connect with her on LinkedIn, and read more about her work with the Aberdeen Group.


Your Employees Should Be Smiling

16 Apr

Your Employees Should Be SmilingEmployees often need to be happy in order to be productive, it is important to have fun at work. Most workforce management experts agree that the satisfaction levels of your staff directly influences performance. So it’s up to you, as the manager, to create an environment that is conducive to happiness. Here are some ways to make your employees smile more often.

Offer new opportunities – Most professionals join companies with the idea that there will be room to grow. But do they know how to navigate the often subtle workplace politics? Are they intimidated or inhibited in any way? As manager, you should take the time – whether through one-on-one meetings or email chains – to show how and where employees can direct their natural ambition.

Give them a voice – People like to know that their words mean something to higher-ups. If you’re able to show your employees that their comments, criticisms and concerns are heard, then it follows that they’ll feel like they have a more important role within the company. But, of course, you can’t forget to give them credit when due.

Support unusual practices – Routine is tedious. If an employee comes to you with a quirky idea for a job title, furniture arrangement, company outing or workplace display, give it a shot. If it doesn’t work out then it doesn’t work out – there’s no need to dwell. The important thing is that you show an interest in new ways of doing things.

Create new traditions – Company traditions – no matter how trite or negligible – can help build workplace culture. Even the extremely silly traditions (like Muffin Monday) can at least crack a few smiles.

“Buying a keg of beer this Friday night won’t change the culture,” points out Inc. magazine. “It takes commitment and long-term resolve. When you find something that works, keep doing it.”

Be fun and set examples – Nobody likes an uncompromising boss, but if that’s the way you are then expect your employees to follow in step. While you don’t want to encourage rule-breaking, it’s more important to promote spontaneity and improvisation – qualities of any effective manager.

“You are the leader, so act like it,” continutes Inc. “Don’t expect others to execute on this one. You have to let your hair down, set the example, and join the party. Get out of your office.”

What is your office like? As a manager do you help create a happy and productive environment?


Better Data Quality, Better HR Results

13 Apr

Improving HR Data Quality Is Easier Than You ThinkIn this acronym-rich industry of ours there’s still one acronym that I hold above all others because its truth is undeniable: GIGO. For those of you who might not remember this one, it stands for “garbage in,  garbage out” – and it describes what we all know too-well: the poorer the quality of the data in our HR application, the less value we’re going to get out of that application.

GIGO has been with us practically since the dawn of the computer software age; and yet, in our excitement over new products, new gadgets, and (most of all) new catch-phrases, GIGO has to a great degree been pushed off to the side. Organizations have been too-accustomed (and too forgiving) in accepting “bad data” in their software applications, and when the economy falters and organizations downsize their staff, the incremental increase in bad data is simply accepted as the cost of doing business with fewer people to do it.

Don’t you believe it.

Chalking up the increase in bad data to a reduction in staffing is an all-too convenient excuse, and – if anything – staff downsizing should bring the subject of bad data to the forefront of a business and make addressing it a corporate imperative.

But here’s the thing – most HR organizations think of data quality in terms of data entry; making sure that required fields aren’t left blank, making sure that validated fields have valid responses, and seeing to it that date fields contain date values, numeric fields contain numeric values, and so on. Now all of these things do help to improve the quality of data, but they far from all you can do to improve data quality.

Consider the following: 

  • Making sure that phone numbers have the correct number of digits
  • Making sure that email addresses include the ‘@’ symbol
  • Making sure that “follow-up” or “service” dates are no more than ‘x’ days out
  • Making sure an employee’s vacation time does not go negative
  • Making sure that pay raises do not exceed ‘x’ percent (and that a person’s salary is commensurate with their position)
  • Making sure that the personnel data in your HR application is in agreement with the personnel data in your other business applications, such as accounting or sales systems

The above is just a small example of the types of “data integrity” conditions that you can watch for in your HR system; generally speaking, these conditions resolve themselves into the following:

  • Checking for missing data (e.g., no cell phone number)
  • Checking for incorrectly-formatted data (phone numbers, SSNs, email addresses, etc.)
  • Checking for conditionally-missing data (e.g., if field ‘a’ = ‘x’, then field ‘b’ must have a value)
  • Checking for conditionally-invalid data (e.g., if field ‘a’ = ‘x’, field ‘b’ cannot have values ‘y’ or ‘z’)
  • Confirming that date, time, & numeric values fall within acceptable ranges (e.g., a “next scheduled maintenance” date cannot be more than ‘x’ days in the future, or “vacation available” cannot go negative)
  • Performing cross-application data validation (e.g., an employee in the HR system should have the same email address as in that employee in your ERP system)

As mentioned earlier, most HR organizations’ attempts at improving data quality usually begin and end with only the first item above – making sure that HR required fields are not left blank.

So – do yourself, your HR staff, and your employees a favor; the next time you go into your HR application and you see something that makes you want to say “How did that happen?” – don’t just chalk it up as the price of doing business. Implement an HR data-quality system that automatically checks for (and responds to) that “bad data” the moment it appears.

After all, everyone makes mistakes; it’s having to live with them that we can do without.


Social Media Marketing Can Increase Employee Engagement

9 Apr

Social Media Increases Employee EngagementSocial media marketing is more complex than many dabblers may assume. While the field is still fledgling, forward-thinking companies have developed social policies that involve and encourage participation from all members of the organization. This strategy ensures consistent delivery of content with a diverse voice and perspective.

However, any policy needs to outline the types of activities that are permitted, and include a clear description of appropriate behavior. There really are no second chances when it comes to social marketing, so there is a certain degree of trust involved in an open policy. It can help build loyalty among staff and, ultimately, drive employee engagement.

Managers need to set the tone for conversations on Facebook, Twitter and other networks. A respectful and ethical exchange should be the cornerstone of any policy.

Here are a few ways that employees’ social media activities can enhance marketing and also increase engagement levels.

Engage in Facebook and Twitter conversations – Every employee has a different perspective, and each individual has a host of experiences and interests they can bring to the table when developing content. Employees should be free to share valuable insights, company news and industry information to help spread buzz through the web. Of course, you need to make sure your workers know where to turn for guidance in the case of questionable posts.

Participate in LinkedIn groups – As a professional network, LinkedIn can be an important opportunity to share expertise and glean valuable insight. Coupled with its affiliated apps and services, LinkedIn can also help employees stay informed of market trends and seek out industry talent.

Leverage social aggregators – Digg and StumbleUpon are important social platforms for employee engagement and participation. Workers can use these free services to share content and comment on relevant articles, videos and other media. These sites are also critical for content marketing and search engine optimization.

Empowering employees to speak on behalf of your brand is a surefire way to drive satisfaction and loyalty without investing in direct monetary incentives.

Do you know of any other ways social media can drive employee engagement? Let us know via Twitter by tweeting to @SageHRMS or @JoeyBaird with suggestions.


Aligning HR Goals with Corporate Strategy

2 Apr

Human resources professionals are bombarded with articles, seminars, white papers, newsletters and other media touting the importance of HR as a strategic business component. While all of these sources make sound business arguments for this path of future success for HR professionals, few provide useful tools for transitioning from HR’s current operations model to one of a strategic business partner.

What’s more, mounting global competition has placed heavy pressure on large and small organizations to optimize their performance. These forces, in turn, raise expectations among customers, shareholders and even employees. In order to remain competitive, professionals must embrace a number of initiatives for promoting HR as a core business function.

For one, managers need to focus their employee resources on critical tasks and corporate objectives while increasing individual productivity.

Rapid growth and changing market conditions mandate that the HR department of any organization move beyond traditional employee benefit support and training. HR professionals must now take an active role in employee engagement. After all, the old maxim that a company’s most valuable asset is its employees has truth to it, we call this return on employee investment.

Strategy is developed and implemented by individuals who are able to articulate reliable visions of the future. In that sense, HR strategy must be considered in conjunction with other divisions, including finance, marketing, sales, IT and other functions.

Additional imperatives of the strategy-minded HR executive include the ability to identify and reward top performers, and to invest in employee development, whether through training programs or mentorships. Staffing demands will also come to place added stress on recruiters, as companies seek out the top performers for open positions. With heightened competition, companies need to make sure they hire the right candidates for the right positions the first time around.

HR professionals who are focused on strategy should also be able to turn the routine job of performance appraisal into performance management. Toward that end, employers and HR teams need to identify core strengths in individual employees and candidates. They must ask themselves: What are the key elements needed for an employee to satisfactorily perform their job? Are there specific development needs that an employee would need in order to not only handle their responsibilities but move beyond what is expected of them and their organization?

To learm more about transitioning to an HR model focused on strategy, view our recorded webcast, Aligning HR Internal Goals With Corporate Goals – A How To.